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Novel 2019 Coronavirus structure part 7

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Novel 2019 Coronavirus structure part 6

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Emerging coronaviruses part 12

Diversity of CoV pathogenesis Different CoVs display diverse host range and tissue tropism. Usually, alphacoronaviruses andbetacoronaviruses infect mammals. In contrast, gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses infect birds and fish, but some of them can also infect mammals. Before 2019, there were only … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 11

Four structural proteins are essential for virion assembly and infection of CoVs. Homotrimers of S proteins make up the spikes on the viral surface and they are responsible for attachment to host receptors. The M protein has three membrane domains … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 10

FUNCTIONS OF NONSTRUCTURAL AND STRUCTURAL PROTEINS IN CORONAVIRAL REPLICATION Most of the nsps of nsp-16 have been reported for their specific roles in the replication of CoVs. However, the functions of some of the nsps are unknown or not well … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 9

The maintenance  of such a large genome of CoVs may be related to the special features of the CoV RTC, which contains several RNA processing enzymes such as the 3′-5′ exoribonuclease of nsp14. The 3′-5′ exoribonuclease is unique to CoVs … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 1

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important pathogens for human and vertebrates. They can infect respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and central nervous system of human, livestock, birds, bat, mouse and many other wild animals. The outbreaks of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in … Continue reading

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Continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis in coronaviruses part 44

Arterivirus nsp1 and N proteins also localize in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of infected cells. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndromevirus (PRRSV) N protein accumulates in the nucleoli of infected cells, where it interacts with the host cells proteins fibrillarin, … Continue reading

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Continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis in coronaviruses part 43

  In TGEV-infected cells, nsp1 is distributed in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, which is not surprising as it can freely diffuse into the nucleus because of its small molecular weight (∼9 kDa). In contrast to TGEV nsp1, both … Continue reading

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Continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis in coronaviruses part 42

  SARS-CoV proteins 6 and 9b affect nucleocytoplasmic transport. Protein 6 impedes nuclear import of factors such as STAT1  and antagonizes IFN signaling pathways. Protein 9b shuttles from the nucleus by its interaction with cellular exportin 1 (Crm1), which is … Continue reading

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