COVID-19 vaccine development part 6

Immunogens used to develop viral vaccines:

Protein subunit: 

  • A protein derived from a pathogen
  • May have fever side effects than whole virus (redness, swelling at injection site)
  • May be poorly immunogenic, complex process
  • Example of vaccine : Influenza
Posted in Tak Berkategori | Leave a comment

COVID-19 vaccine development part 5

Immunogens used to develop viral vaccines:

Whole inactivated virus:

  • Inactivated dead virus
  • Induces strong antibody response
  • Requires large quantities of virus
  • Influenza, rabies, hepatitis A

Posted in Tak Berkategori | Leave a comment

COVID-19 vaccine development part 4

Immunogens used to develop viral vaccines

Attennuated live virus:

  • Live virus but doesn’t cause disease
  • Induces same response as natural infection
  • Not recommended  for pregnant women and immunocompromised persons
  • Measles,  rubella, mumps, yellow fever, smallpox (Vaccinia)
Posted in Tak Berkategori | Leave a comment

COVID-19 vaccine development part 3

 How vaccines are delivered?

  • A vaccine can be administered through different routes, for example injection in the muscle or under skin or via the oral route
  • Vaccines sometimes require more than one dose to:
  1. build complete immunity
  2. give a “booster” dose when immunity wears off
  3. immunize people against viruses causing disease that may be different from season to season, for example, the yearly flu vaccine

Posted in Tak Berkategori | Leave a comment

COVID-19 vaccine development part 2

How vaccines work?

  • Vaccines greatlynreduce the risk of infection by training the immune system to recognize and fight pathogens such as viruses or bacteria.
  • Vaccines safely deliver an immunogen which is a specific type of antigen that elicits an immune response, to train the immune system to recognize the pathogen when it is encountered naturally.
Posted in Tak Berkategori | Leave a comment

COVID-19 vaccine development part 1

Why we use vaccines?

  • Vaccines can prevent infectious disease. Examples of vaccine-preventable disease are: measles, polio, hepatitis B, influenza and many others.
  • When most people in a community are vaccinated against a disease, the ability of the pathogen to spread is limited. This is called ‘herd” or “indirect” or “population” immunity.
  • When many people have immunity, this is also indirectly protects people who cannot be vaccinated, such as very young babies and those who have compromised immune system.
Posted in Tak Berkategori | Leave a comment

Imaging in coronavirus disease 2019 part 4

The virus outbreak presumably originated via a zoonotic transmission linked to the seafood market in Wuhan (China) and later accelarated with human to human transmission, causing the severe subsequent outbreak. Since the original outbreak, SARS-CoV2 has rapidly spread across the world and, in January 2020, The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global public health emergency. 

Posted in Tak Berkategori | Leave a comment

Imaging in coronavirus disease 2019 part 3

In late November 2019, a serious form of pulmonary illness originated in Wuhan City (Hubei province, China) an engulfed a majority of the world. This pneumonia outbreak was attributed to a novel coronavirus, a lipid-enveloped RNA virus, which was named by the International Committee on Taxonomy of viruses severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). The disease caused by the virus was termed coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).

Posted in Tak Berkategori | Leave a comment

Imaging in coronavirus disease 2019 part 2

The limitations of RT-PCR, specifically. the fact that it is time-consuming and inadequate for the assessment of disease severity, have affected the process of epidemiological disease containment and has taken a toll on the healthcare management chain. As the risk of infection for other patients and personnel must be kept to a minimum, the indications for imaging have to be carefully considered. Imaging is primarily performed in patients with a negative RT-PCR, but high clinical suspicion of COVID-19, or, in patients with diagnosed COVID-19 who are suffering from moderate to severe symptoms.

Posted in Tak Berkategori | Leave a comment

Imaging in coronavirus disease 2019 part 1

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) originated in the Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in November 2019 and has since been declared a pandemic by the WHO. COVID-19 is an acute infectious disease, primarily affecting the respiratory system. Currently, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed on respiratory specimens is considered the the reference by which to diagnose COVID-19.

Posted in Tak Berkategori | Leave a comment