COVID-19 vaccine development part 8

Immunogens used to develop viral vaccines

Peptides :

  • Synthetic produced fragment of an antigen
  • Rapid development
  • Poorly immunogenic; high cost
  • Example of vaccines : COVID-19 vaccines in development
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COVID-19 vaccine development part 7

Immunogens used to develop viral vaccines :

Recombinant :

  • Host cell is used to express an antigen
  • No need to produce the whole virus
  • May be  poorly immunogenic; high cost
  • Example of vaccines : Hepatitis B
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COVID-19 vaccine development part 6

Immunogens used to develop viral vaccines:

Protein subunit: 

  • A protein derived from a pathogen
  • May have fever side effects than whole virus (redness, swelling at injection site)
  • May be poorly immunogenic, complex process
  • Example of vaccine : Influenza
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COVID-19 vaccine development part 5

Immunogens used to develop viral vaccines:

Whole inactivated virus:

  • Inactivated dead virus
  • Induces strong antibody response
  • Requires large quantities of virus
  • Influenza, rabies, hepatitis A

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COVID-19 vaccine development part 4

Immunogens used to develop viral vaccines

Attennuated live virus:

  • Live virus but doesn’t cause disease
  • Induces same response as natural infection
  • Not recommended  for pregnant women and immunocompromised persons
  • Measles,  rubella, mumps, yellow fever, smallpox (Vaccinia)
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COVID-19 vaccine development part 3

 How vaccines are delivered?

  • A vaccine can be administered through different routes, for example injection in the muscle or under skin or via the oral route
  • Vaccines sometimes require more than one dose to:
  1. build complete immunity
  2. give a “booster” dose when immunity wears off
  3. immunize people against viruses causing disease that may be different from season to season, for example, the yearly flu vaccine

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COVID-19 vaccine development part 2

How vaccines work?

  • Vaccines greatlynreduce the risk of infection by training the immune system to recognize and fight pathogens such as viruses or bacteria.
  • Vaccines safely deliver an immunogen which is a specific type of antigen that elicits an immune response, to train the immune system to recognize the pathogen when it is encountered naturally.
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COVID-19 vaccine development part 1

Why we use vaccines?

  • Vaccines can prevent infectious disease. Examples of vaccine-preventable disease are: measles, polio, hepatitis B, influenza and many others.
  • When most people in a community are vaccinated against a disease, the ability of the pathogen to spread is limited. This is called ‘herd” or “indirect” or “population” immunity.
  • When many people have immunity, this is also indirectly protects people who cannot be vaccinated, such as very young babies and those who have compromised immune system.
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Imaging in coronavirus disease 2019 part 4

The virus outbreak presumably originated via a zoonotic transmission linked to the seafood market in Wuhan (China) and later accelarated with human to human transmission, causing the severe subsequent outbreak. Since the original outbreak, SARS-CoV2 has rapidly spread across the world and, in January 2020, The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global public health emergency. 

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Imaging in coronavirus disease 2019 part 3

In late November 2019, a serious form of pulmonary illness originated in Wuhan City (Hubei province, China) an engulfed a majority of the world. This pneumonia outbreak was attributed to a novel coronavirus, a lipid-enveloped RNA virus, which was named by the International Committee on Taxonomy of viruses severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). The disease caused by the virus was termed coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).

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