Category Archives: Tak Berkategori

Types of vaccine part 9

Live attenuated vaccines Available since the 1950s, live attenuated vaccines (LAV) are derived from disease-causing pathogens (virus or bacteria) that have been weakened under laboratory conditions. They will grow in a vaccinated individual, but because they are weak, they will … Continue reading

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Types of vaccine part 8

There are many types of vaccines.  Different types or formulations affect how they are used, how they are stored, and how they are administered. If they are to be safe and effective, it is vital to be familiar with the … Continue reading

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Types of vaccine part 7

Adverse reactions associated with LAVs Five vaccines that are recommended by WHO are produced using LAV technology which are displayed in the table below: Tuberculosis (BCG) Oral polio vaccine Measles Rotavirus Yellow fever The table lists the rare, more severe … Continue reading

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Types of vaccine part 6

Safety and stability: Attenuated pathogens can revert to original form and cause disease Potential harm to individuals with compromised immune systems (eg. HIV) Sustained infection (BCG-local lymphadenitis) Contamination of tissue culture Immunization errors (Reconstitution, cold chain) Usually not given in … Continue reading

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Types of vaccine part 5

Immune response: Live microorganisms provide continual antigenic stimulation, giving sufficient time for memory cell production Attenuated pathogens are capable of replicating within host cells

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Types of vaccine part 4

Combination vaccines Some of the antigens above can be combined in a single injection that can prevent different diseases or that protect against multiple strains of infectious agents causing the same¬† (e.g.¬† combination vaccine DPT combining diptheria, pertusisis and tetanus … Continue reading

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Types of vaccine part 3

Mono and polyvalent vaccine Vaccines may be monovalent or polyvalent. A monovalent vaccine contains a single strain of a single antigen (e.g. Measles vaccine), whereas a polyvalent vaccine contains two or more strains/serotypes of the same antigen (e.g. OPV).

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Types of vaccine part 2

Types of vaccine: Live attenuated (LAV) Tuberculosis (BCG) Oral polio vaccine (OPV) Measles Rotavirus Yellow fever Inactivated (killed antigen) Whole cell pertusis (wP) Inactivated polio virus (IPV) Subunit (purified antigen) Acelullar pertusis (aP) Haemophylus influenzae type b (Hib) Pneumococcal (PCV-7, … Continue reading

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Types of vaccine part 1

Vaccines require rigorous follow-up once approved for use to assess types and rates of adverse events. The development of more effective and even safer vaccines as well as developing vaccines for more diseases that are serious is always ongoing. There … Continue reading

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Manufacturing, safety and quality control of vaccines part 7

Quality control Once vaccines start being administrated, national authorities and WHO constantly monitor for – and establish the severity of – any possible adverse side effects and responses from people who have received the vaccine. The safety of the vaccine … Continue reading

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