Category Archives: Tak Berkategori

Basic components of the immune system part 89

  IMMUNOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES Laboratory tests vary widely in clinical immunology. Some are essential for diagnosis while others useful in subclassifying disorders. Finally, some are of research interest only but may add to our immunological armamentarium in the future. In this … Continue reading

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Basic components of the immune system part 88

  TYPE IV: DELAYED T cells drive this reaction when they react with antigen and release TH1 cytokines. The cytokines in turn attract other cells, such as macrophages, which release their lysosomal enzymes. Histologically, the lesions consist of lymphocytes, macrophages, … Continue reading

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Basic components of the immune system part 87

  TYPE III: IMMUNE COMPLEX These reactions result from the presence of either circulating immune complexes in the tissues. Deposition of immune complexes depends on their size, charge, local concentration of complement, and perhaps most important the nature of the … Continue reading

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Basic components of the immune system part 86

  TYPE II: CELL BOUND These reactions are initiated by antibody reacting with antigen on the cell membranes. IgM and IgG can be involved in these reactions. Clinical examples include organ-specific autoimmune diseases and immune hemolytic anemia. The role of … Continue reading

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Basic components of the immune system part 85

  HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TYPE I: IMMEDIATE These reaction are those that involve antigens that react with IgE bound to tissue mast cells or basophils. Activation of the mast cell results in the release of large amounts of pharmachologically active substances. … Continue reading

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Basic components of the immune system part 84

  TISSUE DAMAGE PATHWAY Although the major function of the components of the immune system is to neutralize or destroy the invading organisms or antigen, these reaction often cause “bystander” tissue damage as well. These are called hypersensitivity reactions, and … Continue reading

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Basic components of the immune system part 83

  The use of an antibody-coated target to destroy foreign target cells is called antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, or ADCC. This killing is dependent on the recognition by cells bearing Fc receptors and includes monocytes, neutrophils and NK cells. These cells … Continue reading

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