Category Archives: Tak Berkategori

COVID-19 vaccine development part 16

Why there are so many COVID-19 vaccines in development : There are many different COVID-19 vaccines in development because it is not yet known which ones will be effective and safe Based on experience, roughly 7% of vaccines in preclinical … Continue reading

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COVID-19 vaccine development part 15

Steps in vaccine development : (Action taken to ensure a new vaccine is safe and works well) Pre-clinical studies       Vaccine is tested in animal studies for efficacy and safety, including challenge studies Phase I clinical trial   … Continue reading

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COVID-19 vaccine development part 14

Nucleic acid vaccines : Instead of a virus, a protein antigen, or a virus expressing the protein, nucleic acid coding for the antigen is injected DNA plasmid: enters nucleus, translated to mRNA for expression of protein Or  mRNA can be … Continue reading

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COVID-19 vaccine development part 13

Viral vector vaccines : The gene for a pathogen protein is inserted into a different virus that can infect someone without causing disease The safe virus serves as a “platform” or “vector” to deliver the protein that triggers an immune … Continue reading

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COVID-19 vaccine development part 12

Protein-based vaccines : A protein is extracted from the virus (alive or inactivated), purified, and injected as a vaccine For coronavirus, this is most commonly the spike protein Virus-like particles work in the same way  

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COVID-19 vaccine development part 11

VIRUS VACCINES Virus is selected, modified (weakened) or completely inactivated so that it will not cause disease

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COVID-19 vaccine development part 10

Immunogens used to develop viral vaccines : Nucleic acids : DNA or RNA coding for a viral protein Strong cellular immunity, rapid development Relatively low antibody response Example of vaccines

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COVID-19 vaccine development part 9

Immunogens used to develop viral vaccines : Replicating or non-replicating viral vector : Viral pathogen expressed on a safe virus that doesn’t cause  disease Rapid development Prior exposure to vector virus (eg. adenovirus) may reduce immunogenicity Example of vaccines : … Continue reading

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COVID-19 vaccine development part 8

Immunogens used to develop viral vaccines Peptides : Synthetic produced fragment of an antigen Rapid development Poorly immunogenic; high cost Example of vaccines : COVID-19 vaccines in development

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COVID-19 vaccine development part 7

Immunogens used to develop viral vaccines : Recombinant : Host cell is used to express an antigen No need to produce the whole virus May be  poorly immunogenic; high cost Example of vaccines : Hepatitis B

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