Category Archives: Tak Berkategori

Continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis in coronaviruses part 44

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Continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis in coronaviruses part 43

  In TGEV-infected cells, nsp1 is distributed in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, which is not surprising as it can freely diffuse into the nucleus because of its small molecular weight (∼9 kDa). In contrast to TGEV nsp1, both … Continue reading

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Continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis in coronaviruses part 42

  SARS-CoV proteins 6 and 9b affect nucleocytoplasmic transport. Protein 6 impedes nuclear import of factors such as STAT1  and antagonizes IFN signaling pathways. Protein 9b shuttles from the nucleus by its interaction with cellular exportin 1 (Crm1), which is … Continue reading

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Continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis in coronaviruses part 41

  As noted above,  N protein-recruited DDX1 functions in the RTC in facilitating TRS read-through and synthesis of long sgmRNAs. The 3b proteins of IBV and SARS-CoV, though different in nature, have also been located in part in the nuclei … Continue reading

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Continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis in coronaviruses part 40

The coronavirus protein most frequently associated with the host cell nucleus  is the N protein, and its transport to the nucleus is regulated by phosphorylation. N protein nuclear localization is associated with induction of cell cycle arrest and inhibition of … Continue reading

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Continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis in coronaviruses part 39

  RELEVANCE OF THE CELL NUCLEUS IN CORONAVIRUS RNA SYNTHESIS All positive strand RNA viruses that infect animals replicate in the cytoplasm of the infected host cell. However, there is ample evidence that implicated the nucleus and nuclear proteins in … Continue reading

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Continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis in coronaviruses part 38

  A new hypothesis postulates that stress granules are involved in an integrated stress-innate immunity activation response. In this pathway, viral RNA and proteins, along with host pathogen-sensing factors, such as the dsRNA-binding protein kinase R (PKR) and the RNA … Continue reading

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Continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis in coronaviruses part 37

  These granules contained the stress granule markers T cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1), TIA-1-related protein (TIAR), and polypirimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) in association with with viral gRNA and sgmRNAs. TGEV-induced stress granules might contribute to the spatiotemporal regulation of … Continue reading

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Continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis in coronaviruses part 36

  For coronaviruses, MHV replication was found to be enhanced in cell deficient in stress granule formation, implying that stress granules contribute to viral inhibition. TGEV induced stress granules that persisted from 7 to 16 hpi, which was correlated with … Continue reading

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Continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis in coronaviruses part 35

  During infection, RNA viruses dynamically interact with stress granules and P bodies, leading to varying stress granule phenotypes. Many virus have evolved mechanisms to antagonize the formation of stress granules, suggesting that stress granules are involved in restricting virus … Continue reading

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