Category Archives: Tak Berkategori

Tubular reabsorption part 1

    Total plasma volume filters into the renal tubules about every 22 minutes, so all plasma  would be drained  away as urine in less than 30 minutes were it not for the fact that most of the tubule contents … Continue reading

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Glomerular filtration part 2C

      Other factors affecting Glomerular filtration rate Renal cells produce a battery of chemicals, many of which act as paracrines (local signaling molecules) : Prostaglandin E2  (PGE2) : The vasodilatory paracrine PGE2, counteracts vasoconstriction by norepinephrine  and angiotensin … Continue reading

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Glomerular filtration part 2B

    EXTRINSIC CONTROLS (NEURAL AND HORMONAL MECHANISM) The purpose of the  extrinsic controls regulating the glomerular filtration rate is to maintain systemic blood pressure – sometimes to the detriment of the kidneys. Symphatetic nervous system controls Neural renal controls … Continue reading

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Glomerular filtration part 2A

      Regulation of glomerular filtration Glomerular filtration rate is regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic controls. These two types of controls serve two different (and sometimes opposing) needs. The kidneys need a relatively constant glomerular filtration rate in … Continue reading

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Glomerular filtration part 1

      Glomerular filtration Glomerular filtration is a passive process in which hydrostatic pressure forces fluids and solutes through a membrane. The glomeruli can be viewed as simple mechanical filters because filtrate formation does not consume metabolic energy. The … Continue reading

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Mechanism of urine formation

  Urine formation and the adjustment of blood composition involve three major processes: glomerular filtration by the glomeruli, tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion in the renal tubules. In addition, the collecting ducts work in concert with the nephrons to make … Continue reading

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