Category Archives: Tak Berkategori



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Glomerular filtration part 2C

      Other factors affecting Glomerular filtration rate Renal cells produce a battery of chemicals, many of which act as paracrines (local signaling molecules) : Prostaglandin E2¬† (PGE2) : The vasodilatory paracrine PGE2, counteracts vasoconstriction by norepinephrine¬† and angiotensin … Continue reading

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Glomerular filtration part 2B

    EXTRINSIC CONTROLS (NEURAL AND HORMONAL MECHANISM) The purpose of the¬† extrinsic controls regulating the glomerular filtration rate is to maintain systemic blood pressure – sometimes to the detriment of the kidneys. Symphatetic nervous system controls Neural renal controls … Continue reading

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Glomerular filtration part 2A

      Regulation of glomerular filtration Glomerular filtration rate is regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic controls. These two types of controls serve two different (and sometimes opposing) needs. The kidneys need a relatively constant glomerular filtration rate in … Continue reading

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Glomerular filtration part 1

      Glomerular filtration Glomerular filtration is a passive process in which hydrostatic pressure forces fluids and solutes through a membrane. The glomeruli can be viewed as simple mechanical filters because filtrate formation does not consume metabolic energy. The … Continue reading

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Mechanism of urine formation

  Urine formation and the adjustment of blood composition involve three major processes: glomerular filtration by the glomeruli, tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion in the renal tubules. In addition, the collecting ducts work in concert with the nephrons to make … Continue reading

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Juxta glomerular apparatus

    JUXTA GLOMERULAR APPARATUS Each nephron has a region called a juxtaglomerular apparatus, where the most distal portion of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle lies against the afferent arteriole feeding the glomerulus (and sometimes the efferent … Continue reading

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