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Emerging coronaviruses part 13

Some CoVs can infect livestock, birds, bats, mice, whales, and many other wild animals, and they can cause great economic loss. For example, in 2016, an HKU2-related bat CoV, swine acute diarrhea syndrome CoV, cause a large-scale outbreak of fatal … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 12

Diversity of CoV pathogenesis Different CoVs display diverse host range and tissue tropism. Usually, alphacoronaviruses andbetacoronaviruses infect mammals. In contrast, gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses infect birds and fish, but some of them can also infect mammals. Before 2019, there were only … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 11

Four structural proteins are essential for virion assembly and infection of CoVs. Homotrimers of S proteins make up the spikes on the viral surface and they are responsible for attachment to host receptors. The M protein has three membrane domains … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 10

FUNCTIONS OF NONSTRUCTURAL AND STRUCTURAL PROTEINS IN CORONAVIRAL REPLICATION Most of the nsps of nsp-16 have been reported for their specific roles in the replication of CoVs. However, the functions of some of the nsps are unknown or not well … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 9

The maintenance¬† of such a large genome of CoVs may be related to the special features of the CoV RTC, which contains several RNA processing enzymes such as the 3′-5′ exoribonuclease of nsp14. The 3′-5′ exoribonuclease is unique to CoVs … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 8

The genome sequence alignment of CoVs shows 58% identity on the nsp-coding region and 43% identity on the structural protein-coding region among different CoVs, with 54% at the whole genome level, suggesting the nsps are more conserved and the structural … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 7

Other ORFs on the one-third of the genome near the 3′-terminus encodes at least four main structural protein: spike (S), membrane (M), envelope (E) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. Besides these four main structural proteins, such as HE protein, 3a/b protein, … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 6

The genome and subgenomes of a typical CoV contain at least six ORFs. The first ORFs (ORF1a/b), about two-thirds of the whole genome length, encode 16 nsps (nsp1-16), except Gammacoronavirus that lacks nsp1. There is a -1 frameshift between ORF1a … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 5

Subsequently, a nested set of subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) are synthesized by RTC in a manner of discontinuous transcription. These subgenomic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) possess common 5′-leader and 3′-terminal sequences. Transcription termination and subsequent acquisitio nof a leader RNA occurs at … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 4

CORONAVIRAL GENOME STRUCTURE AND REPLICATION CoVs belong to the subfamily Coronavirinae in the family of Coronaviridae of the order Nidovirales, and this subfamily includes four genera: Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus. The genome of CoVs is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA … Continue reading

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