Author Archives: azaleaazelia

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Novel 2019 Coronavirus structure part 1

In the past two decades, the world has faced several infectious disease outbreaks. Ebola, Influenza A (H1N1), SARS, MERS, and Zika virus have had a massive global impact in terms of economic disruption, the strain on local and global public … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 16

In addition, various vaccine strategies, such as using inactivated viruses, live-attenuated viruses, viral vector-based vaccines, subunit vaccines, recombinant proteins, and DNA vaccines, have been developed. Since there is no effective therapy or vaccine, the best measures now are to control … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 15

TREATMENT AND PREVENTION At present, there is no single specific antiviral therapy for CoV and the main treatments are supportive. Recombinant IFN with ribavirin only has limited effects against CoVs infection. After SARS and MERS epidemics, great efforts have been … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 14

Many of the patients have direct or indirect contact with the Wuhan Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market that is belived to be the original place of the outbreak of the 2019-nCoV. However, transmission of 2019-nCoV from fish to human is unlikely. … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 13

Some CoVs can infect livestock, birds, bats, mice, whales, and many other wild animals, and they can cause great economic loss. For example, in 2016, an HKU2-related bat CoV, swine acute diarrhea syndrome CoV, cause a large-scale outbreak of fatal … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 12

Diversity of CoV pathogenesis Different CoVs display diverse host range and tissue tropism. Usually, alphacoronaviruses andbetacoronaviruses infect mammals. In contrast, gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses infect birds and fish, but some of them can also infect mammals. Before 2019, there were only … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 11

Four structural proteins are essential for virion assembly and infection of CoVs. Homotrimers of S proteins make up the spikes on the viral surface and they are responsible for attachment to host receptors. The M protein has three membrane domains … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 10

FUNCTIONS OF NONSTRUCTURAL AND STRUCTURAL PROTEINS IN CORONAVIRAL REPLICATION Most of the nsps of nsp-16 have been reported for their specific roles in the replication of CoVs. However, the functions of some of the nsps are unknown or not well … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 9

The maintenance¬† of such a large genome of CoVs may be related to the special features of the CoV RTC, which contains several RNA processing enzymes such as the 3′-5′ exoribonuclease of nsp14. The 3′-5′ exoribonuclease is unique to CoVs … Continue reading

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Emerging coronaviruses part 8

The genome sequence alignment of CoVs shows 58% identity on the nsp-coding region and 43% identity on the structural protein-coding region among different CoVs, with 54% at the whole genome level, suggesting the nsps are more conserved and the structural … Continue reading

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