Tetanus toxoid vaccine example
Tetanus is caused by bacteria that enter the body through open wounds. The bacteria cause an increased tightening of muscles, resulting in spasms, stiffness, and arching of the spine. Ultimately breathing becomes more difficult, and spasms occur more frequently.
People of all ages can get tetanus. But the disease is particularly common and serious in newborn babies. This is called neonatal tetanus. Most infants who get the disease die. Neonatal tetanus is particularly common in rural areas where most deliveries are at home without adequate sterile procedures.
Tetanus can be prevented by immunizing women of childbearing age with tetanus toxoid, either during pregnancy or before pregnancy. This protects the mother and-through a transfer of tetanus antibodies to the fetus-also her baby.
People who recover from tetanus do not have natural immunity and can be infected again and therefore need to be immunized. To be protected throughout life, and individual should received three doses of DTP in infancy, followed by a booster containing tetanus toxoid (TT)-at school-entry age (4-7 years), in adolescence (12-15 years), and in early adulthood.