Types of vaccine part 48

Route of administration:

  1. Intramuscular (IM) injection administers the vaccine into the muscle mass. Vaccines containing adjuvants should be injected IM to reduce adverse local effects.
  2. Subcutaneous (SC) injection administers the vaccine into the subcutaneous layer above the muscle and below the skin.
  3. Intradermal (ID) injection administers the vaccine in the top-most layer of the skin. BCG is the only vaccine with this route of administration. Intradermal injection of BCG vaccine reduces the risk of neurovascular injury.
  4. Oral administration of vaccine makes immunization easier by eliminating the need for a needle and syringe.
  5. Intranasal spray application of a vaccine offers a needle free approach through the nasal mucosa of the vaccine

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