Route of administration:
- Intramuscular (IM) injection administers the vaccine into the muscle mass. Vaccines containing adjuvants should be injected IM to reduce adverse local effects.
- Subcutaneous (SC) injection administers the vaccine into the subcutaneous layer above the muscle and below the skin.
- Intradermal (ID) injection administers the vaccine in the top-most layer of the skin. BCG is the only vaccine with this route of administration. Intradermal injection of BCG vaccine reduces the risk of neurovascular injury.
- Oral administration of vaccine makes immunization easier by eliminating the need for a needle and syringe.
- Intranasal spray application of a vaccine offers a needle free approach through the nasal mucosa of the vaccine