Types of vaccine part 11

Safety and stability

Since LAVs contain living organisms, there is a degree of unpredictability raising some safety and stability concerns.

  • Attenuated pathogens have the very rare potential to revert to a pathogenic form and cause disease in vaccines or their contacts. Example for this are very rare, serious adverse events of:
  1. Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and
  2. Disease-causing vaccine-derived poliovirus associated with oral polio vaccine (OPV)
  • Functional immune systems eliminate attenuated pathogens in their immune response. Individuals with compromised immune systems, such as HIV-infected patients may not be able to respond adequately to the attenuated antigens.
  • Sustained infection, for example tuberculosis (BCG) vaccination can result in local lymphadenitis or a disseminated infection
  • If the vaccine is grown in a contaminated tissue culture it can be contaminated by other viruses (e.g. retrovirus with  measles vaccine)

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