How easy are they to manufacture?
Both DNA and RNA vaccines are relatively easy to produce, but the manufacturing process differs slightly between them. Once DNA encoding the antigen has been chemically synthesized, it is inserted into bacterial plasmid with the help of specific enzymes-a relatively straightforward procedure. Multiple copies of the plasmid are then produced within giant vats of rapidly dividing bacteria, before being isolated and purified. RNA vaccines are easier to synthesise because this can be done chemically, from a template in the lab, without the need for any bacteria or cells.