How do nucleic acid vaccines trigger immunity?
In the case of DNA vaccines, a piece of DNA encoding the antigen is first inserted into a bacterial plasmid. This is a circular piece of DNA used by a bacterium to store and share genes which may benefit its survival-a bit like a computer flash drive. Plasmids can replicate independently of the main chromosomal DNA and provide a simple tool for transferring genes between cells. Because of this, they are already widely used within the field of genetic engineering.