COVID-19 vaccine development part 15

Steps in vaccine development :

(Action taken to ensure a new vaccine is safe and works well)

  • Pre-clinical studies

      Vaccine is tested in animal studies for efficacy and safety, including challenge studies

  • Phase I clinical trial

      Small groups of healthy adult volunteers to receive the vaccine to test for safety

  • Phase II clinical trial

      Vaccine is given to people who have characteristics (such as age and physical health) similar to those for whom the new vaccine is intended

  • Phase III clinical trial

      Vaccine is given to thousands of people  and tested for efficacy and safety

  • Phase IV post marketing surveillance

      Ongoing studies after the vaccine is approved and licensed, to monitor adverse events and to study long-term effects of the vaccine in the population

  • Human challenge studies

      Study in which a vaccine is given followed by the pathogen against which the vaccine is designed to protect. Such as trials are uncommon in people as they present considerable ethical challenge

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