In summary, most reported studies are uncontrolled ones. There are a few prospective, randomised studies. Bone marrow aspirate, bone marrow aspirate consentration or culture-expanded mesenchymal stem cells were used for long bone nonunions, tibial osteotomies, distractionosteogenesis, spine fusion and fractures. Achievement of bony union and accelerated healing were reported using thoseion. To be commercialised, immediately available cell therapeutics would be needed. As mesenchymal stem cells do not provoke the host T-cell response, allogeneic implantation of stem cells will be available as an off-the-shelf product (Tasso and Pennesi et al., 2009; Tse et al.,2003). However, data from clinical reports using allogeneic mesenchymal cells for bone regeneration must be obtained for them to be considered a viable option for treating bone defects.