Recently, Dufrane et al. reported use of scaffold-free three-dimensional grafts from autologous adipose stem cells for reconstruction of large-bone defects. Human adipose stem cells were obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue of six patients, expanded up to passage 4, incubated in osteogenic structure. The three dimensional “bone-like” structure was finally transplanted into three patients with bone tumour resection and three patients with bone pseudoarthrosis (two congenital, one acquired). The final osteogenic product was implanted directly into the bone defect. In three patients who had achieved consolidation, no acute (<3months) side effects, such as impaired wound healing, pain, inflammatory reaction, and infection; or long-term side effects, such as tumour development, were associated with the graft up to 4 years after transplantation.