The first clinical case report described three patients with various segmental long bone defects who underwent implantation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells. Macroporous 100% hydroxyapatite scaffolds, which were made to fit the shape and size of the defect, were loaded with ex vivo-expanded human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from their own bone marrow and implanted into the long-bone defects. After follow-up of 6-7 years, the implants were integrated into the bone with no further complications. Despite the lack of controls and no evaluation other than simple radiographs, this report demonstrated the safety of the procedure. In another report, one patient with a combination of autologous cancellous bone and stem cell-seeded porous calcium-triphosphate granules at ratio 1:2. Other clinical studies are case reports on reconstruction of maxillary or mandibular defect using various scaffolding materials, including fibrin glue, β-tricalcium phosphate or hydroxyapatite granules, and platelet-rich plasma.