Several clinics have begun operation both within and outside of United States based on the promise for potential use of autologous stem cells to treat a variety of incurable diseases. These clinics have borrowed on the success of autologous bone marrow transplant and recent basic research on the use of induced pluripotential stem cells that are derived from connective tissue. Common for this clinics is the use of autologous stem cells that are derived from one body tissue, usually adipose or fat tissue (mesenchymal stem cells) and processing these cells to enrich their number. Reinjection of these cells into the blood stream or via inhalation provides hope that they will stick to the target organ, such as the lung. Claims of improvement and cure are implied, but are not stated explicitly, at least by clinics operating within the United States. Rather, these clinics rely on personal testimonials from patients who have undergone this type of therapy. None claim direct scientific proof of the efficacy of autologous stem cell therapy, a fact acknowledged by their noting that the Food and Drug Administration has not approved this type of therapy to treat lung diseases such as COPD.