Advances and challenges of induced pluripotent stem cell technology
Induced pluripotent stem cell are very similar to human embryonic stem cells in terms of karyotype, phenotype, telomerase activity and capacity for differentiation. However, imunopluripotent dtem cells are considered morally superior to human embryonic stem cells since their generation does not require destruction of embryos. Takahashi and Yamanaka demonstrated the first direct reprogramming of mammalian somatic cells. Up-regulation of “Yamanaka factors”: sex determining region Y box-containing gene 2 [SOX2], OCT3/4, tumor suppressor Kruppel-like factor 4 [KLF4], and proto-oncogene c-MYC managed to reprogram differentiated somatic cells in the pluripotent state.