The first published study of successful cartilage regeneration in the human knee using autologous adult mesenchymal stem cells is published by clinicians from Regenerative Sciences in 2008. Embryonic stem cell isolated from a single human hair was was reported in 2008. Australian scientists (2009) found a way to improve chemotherapy of mouse muscle stem cells, Kim et al, 2009. Announced that they had devised a way to manipulate skin cells to create patient specific “induced pluripotent stem cells”, claiming it to be the “ultimate stem cell solution”. For the first time, human embryonic stem cells have been cultured under chemically controlled conditions without the use of animal substances, which is essential for future clinical uses in 2010.