Further studies of these women centered around the known polymorphisms of the IL-4 gene and resistance to infection. Using microsatellite genotyping methods coupled with the genomic sequencing, three polymorphisms in the interferon regulatory factor (IRF-1) located at 619a, 179, and 6516 of the gene, showed association with resistance to HIV infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these patients showed significantly lower-based IRF-1 expression and reduced responsiveness to IFN-γ stimulation. This study added IRF-1, a transcriptional immunoregulatory gene, to the list of genetic correlates of altered susceptibility to HIV-1.

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