Phillip S. Hench discovered the anti-inflammatory properties of cortisone 1949. Corticosteroids are a mainstay of therapy for many systemic autoimmune diseases, including SLE, RA and inflammatory myopathies such as polymyositis. Corticosteroid therapy also is used for the treatment of some of the more serious organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as AIHA, autoimmune thrombocytopenia, multiple sclerosis, and Goodpasture’s syndrome. Corticosteroids reduced inflammation by multiple mechanisms of action. One major action is enhanced transcription of an inhibitor of NFκβ called Iκβ. Iκβ dimerizes with NFκβ, inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines mediated by this transcriptional pathway. In addition, corticosteroids promote the differentiation of a subset of anti-inflammatory macrophages that produce the cytokine IL-10.