HLA typing in organ transplant part 1

mhc class 1 & ii

 

The transplant of organs and tissues is one of the greatest curative achievements of this century. In organ transplantation, the adaptive immunity is considered the main response exerted to the transplanted tissue, since the main goal of the immune responses is the major histocompatibility complex molecules expressed on the surface of donor cells. Cell surface molecules that induce an antigenic stimulus cause the rejection immune response to grafted tissue or organ. A wide variety of transplantation antigens have been described, including the major histocompatibility molecules, minor histocompatibility antigens, ABO blood group antigens and endothelial cell antigens. The sensitization to major histocompatibility complex antigens may caused by transfusions, pregnancy, or failed previous graft leading to development of anti human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies that are important factor responsible for graft rejection in solid organ transplantation and play a role in post-transfusion complication anti-HLA Abs  may be present  in healthy individuals. Methods for HLA typing are described, including serological methods, molecular techniques of sequence-specific priming, sequence-specific oligonucleotide probing, sequence based typing and reference strand-based conformation analysis method. Problem with organ transplantation are reservoir of organs and immune suppressive treatments that used to decrease rate of rejection with less side effect and complication

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