Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) part 109

hla protein 1

 

Type I diabetes, a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component, is caused by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. The major type I diabetes susceptibility locus maps to the class II loci HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 on chromosome 6p21. The highest risk DR/DQ haplotypes for type I diabetes are DR3-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201(DR3) AND DR4-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302(DR4), and these alleles account for 30-50% of genetic type I diabetes risk. The association of specific HLA-DQB1 alleles and genotypes with type I diabetes susceptibility/protection depends on the ethnicity and racial background of each population. For example, in Caucasian, type I diabetes is positively associated with DQB1*0201 and DQB1*0302 while in Japanese, it is associated with DQB1*0401 and DQB1*0303

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