HLA and end-stage renal disease
Kidney failure is traditionally regarded as the most serious outcome of chronic kidney disease, and symptoms are usually caused by complications of reduced kidney function. When symptoms are severe, they can be treated only by dialysis and transplantation; kidney failure treated in this way is known as end-stage renal disease. The role of the HLA system in the pathophysiology of end-stage renal disease is intriguing, but not completely resolved. Numerous association and non association of HLA with end-stage renal disease have been reported in the medical literature.