Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) part 41

hla protein 1

 

Upon activation, the T cells multiply and by the release of cytokines  are able to set up an immune response  that will recognize  and destroy cells with this same foreign antigen/HLA complex, when next encountered. The exact mode of activation of HLA class I and HLA class II antigens is different in this process. HLA class I molecules, by virtue of their presence on all nucleated cells, present antigens that are  peptides produced by invading viruses. These are specifically presented to CD8 T cells, which will then act directly to kill the virally infected cell. HLA class II molecules  have an intracellular chaperone network which prevents endogenous peptide from being inserted into its antigen-binding cleft. They instead bind antigens (peptides) which are derived from outside of the cell (and have been engulfed). Such peptides  would be from a bacterial infection. The HLA class II molecule presents this “exogenous” peptide to CD4 T cells which then set up a generalized  immune response. Thus , it is apparent that HLA products are an integral part of immunological health, and therefore, it is no surprise to see a wide variety of areas of clinical and genetic implications.

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