Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) part 31

hla protein 1

 

HLA class II proteins  have constitutive expression limited to immune active cells, including B cells and other antigen-presenting cells (APC). In addition,  expression can be upregulated to other cell types in an inflammatory environtment. Each HLA class II protein comprises an α- and ß- chain both of wich are encoded within the MHC (eg.  HLA-DRA with HLA-DRB1). Each chain has two extra-cellular domain  and again, those most distal to the cell membrane  form a peptide-binding groove which always carries  a self-  or non-self-protein-derived peptide sourced from outside the cell by endocytosis. Class II proteins and bound peptides interact with CD4 T cells  (often helper) and their receptors. The affinity with wich  peptides are bound  to HLA molecules  will influence allogenicity as presented to and recognized  by T cell  receptor.

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