During recent years, alternative strategies for HLA matching have been considered in kidney transplantation. These are referred to as cross-reactive epitope group matching, “public” epitope matching (the conventional HLA antigens are called “private” epitopes), or residue matching (determined from amino acid residue sequence information of HLA antigens). All are based on the concept that HLA molecules contain multiple antigenic determinants, many of which are shared between cross-reacting groups of HLA antigens. For example, the private antigens HLA-A1, HLA-A3 and HLA-A11 form a cross-reactive epitope group that can elicit specific antibodies. An HLA-A1 mismatch would be a cross-reactive epitope group match for a patient who types as HLA-A3,25 or HLA-A2,11 but not for patient who types as HLA-A2,24 or HLA-A23,68. Cross-reactive epitope group matching may permit better donor selection strategies in kidney transplantation.