Management of autogenous arteriovenous (AV) fistula stenosis part 3

Juxta-anastomotic stenosis most common. Photo courtesy of L. Spergel, MD.


Venous outflow stenosis

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is the first treatment option in the outflow veins (cephalic/basilic). Junctional stenosis,  of the superficial veins  with the deep venous system, can also be treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. If a stent is placed in the final arch of the cephalic vein, it must not protude into the subclavian vein where it could induce stenosis and preclude future use of the distal (basilic, brachial and axillary) veins.


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