Emergencies – clinical

Haemodialysis 6

 

Dialysis machine proportioning problems can result in severe serum electrolyte abnormalities. Some of these emergencies include:

  • High or low serum sodium, potassium, calcium or magnesium
  • High or low plasma osmolarity due to hyper- or hypo- osmolar dialysate

 

Clinical emergencies can occur significant levels of contaminants are in the dialysate:

  • Copper or cupraphane may be released from heating element or dialyzer and can cause severe hemolysis
  • Chloramines and nitrates can cause severe hemolysis
  • Fluoride can cause severe pruritis, nausea, and ventricular tachicardia or fatal ventricular fibrillation
  • Aluminium can cause bone disease, anemia and fatal progressive neurologic deterioration commonly known as dialysis encelopathy syndrome
  • Lead, copper, zinc and aluminium can leach from metal pipes and cause anemia
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