Pharmacologic treatments to improve vascular access outcome include use of aspirin and other antiplatelet drugs. Extended-release dipyridamole plus low-dose aspirin prolongs primary unassisted graft patency of newly created hemodialysis AV grafts. However, the beneficial effects of anticoagualants and anti platelet drugs may be counteracted by an increased bleeding tendency and mortality risk.
There have been a number of different approches adopted to improve AV graft patency, ranging from newer nanotechnology-manufactured synthetic grafts, using newer polymer materials and designs, to tissue-enginered grafts. Several of them are now entering clinical trials, and preliminary data to date from completely autologous vascular graft grown in culture.