Types of vaccine part 22

Subunit vaccines

Immune response:

  • Subunit vaccines, like inactivated whole-cell vaccines do not contain live components of the pathogen. They differ from inactivated whole-cell vaccines, by containing only the antigenic parts of the pathogen. These parts are necessary to elicit a protective immune response
  • This precision comes at a cost, as antigenic properties of the various potential subunits of a pathogen must be examined in detail to determine which particular combinations will produce an effective immune response witthin the correct pathway
  • Often a response can be elicited, but there is no guarantee that immunological memory will be formed in the correct manner
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Types of vaccine part 21

Inactivated whole-cell vaccines

Safety and stability:

  • Inactivated whole-cell vaccine have no risk of inducing the disease they are given against as they do not contain live components
  • They are considered more stable than LAV vaccines.
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Types of vaccine part 20

Inactivated whole-cell vaccinations

Immune response:

  • Inactivated-whole cell vaccines may not always induce an immune response and the response may not be long lived
  • Several doses of inactivated whole-cell vaccines may be required to evoke a sufficient immune response

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Types of vaccine part 19

Inactivated whole-cell vaccinations

Inactivated vaccines are made from microorganism (viruses, bacteria, other) that have been killed through physical or chemical process. These killed organisms cannot cause disease.

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Types of vaccine part 18

Yellow fever (YF):

  1. Hypersensitivity reactions
  • Very rare
  • Sensitivity to egg, which is commonly used to stabilize the vaccine, may explain at least some of these cases

2. Vaccine-associated neurotropic disease (encephalitis)

  • Very rare
  • Infants seem more susceptible to vaccine-associated neurotropic disease than the YF-vaccinated population at large

3. Vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease

  • Very rare in children at 0.00001%
  • The elderly seem more susceptible to reactions (very rare at 0.04-0.05%) than the YF-vaccinated population at large
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Types of vaccine part 17

Rotavirus:

  • None reported to WHO
  • To date, post-licensure surveilance does not indicate any increased risk of intussuception or other serious adverse reaction associated with the use of current rotavirus vaccines
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Types of vaccine part 16

Measles:

  1. Febrile seizure 
  • uncommon at 0.3%
  • Adverse reactions, with the exception of allergic anaphylactic reactions, are less likely to occur after receipt of the second dose of measles vaccine

2. Thrombocytopenic purpura

  • Very rare at 0.03%
  • Adverse reactions, with the exception of allergic anaphylactic reactions, are less likely to occur after receipt of the second dose of measles vaccine

3. Anaphylaxis

  • Very rare at 0.001%
  • Allergic reactions to vaccine components including neomycin and the stabilizers gelatine or sorbitol, many follow vaccination.
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Types of vaccine part 15

Oral Polio vaccine (OPV):

  • Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in vacciness and their contacts
  • Very rare at 0.00002-0.0004%
  • An essential component of the global polio eradication campaign despite adverse reactions

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Types of vaccine part 14

Tuberculosis (BCG):

  1. Fatal dissemination of BCG infection
  • Very rare  at  0.000019-0.000159%
  • Almost exclusively occurs in inadvertently immunized persons with severely compromised cellular immunity

2. BCG osteitis

  • Very rare
  • In the past BCG osteitis has been reported in connection with certain vaccine batches but now occurs very rarely
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Types of vaccine part 13

Five WHO recommended vaccines using LAV technology:

  1. Tuberculosis (BCG)
  2. Oral polio vaccine (OPV)
  3. Measles
  4. Rotavirus
  5. Yellow fever
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